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短文改错高频考点拾遗

作者:阂正威   加入时间:2016-01-22    点击数:


口  河南省西华县一高英语教研组 阂正威


    短文改错是高考英语中的一个重要题型,它既能检验考生对于英语的篇章理解能力,又能考查考生对于英语语法的运用能力。笔者认真分析和梳理了近年来各省的高考英语试题,从七个方面归纳出高考短文改错的核心考点,并通过典型例句说明其用法,希望能够以点带面,指导考生在复习备考过程中形成英语思维方式,有的放矢,见微知著,以期达到举一反三、事半功倍的学习效果。
    考点一高频动词
    (I)face (vt.)=be faced with=be confronted with=confront (Vt.)面临
      Faced with a difficult choice between career and family, Mary didn’t know what to do.
    面临事业与家庭间的选择,玛丽不知该如何是好。
      The accused claimed his innocence though confronted with the evidence of his guilt.
    即使面对其犯罪证据,被告仍自称无辜。
    (2) lack ath.(vt.)=be lacking in(adj.)=for lack of(n.)
    They lacked the money to send him to university.
    She lacks a sense ofduty/humour/achievement/direction.
    她缺乏责任感/幽默感/成就感/方向感。
 The flowers withered for lack of water.
(3)①accompany(vt.)=go with=company with陪伴某人
When the party was over, I accompanied Mary to her home.

    (2)return=come/ go back
    ③contact sb.(vt.)=keep contact with和……保持联络
    No matter where you go, you should contact me.
(4)①serve(vt.)=work for/ in 为……服务,为……效力
     serve for/ as作为,用作
 serve the people heart and soul
 The box serves as/ for a chair.
    ②    enter(vt.)=come/ go into;
    enter into+an agreement/ negotiations/ discussion/a

conversation
    达成协议,开始谈话,进人,参与
    Someone entered the room behind me.
    (5) deal with ; do with
    If we are fully prepared, we should be able to deal with all sorts of problems.
    I don’t know what to do with all the food that' s left over.
    What have you done with my umbrella?
    (6) be dressed in+衣服/颜色=dress oneself in
    be seated=seat oneself
      He was dressed in a dark suit at themeeting.
    Could you dress the children for me?
    考点二高频句型
    (I)It is not until" that...;
      It is not... but... that---.
      It is not until near the end of the letter that she mentioned her plan.
    It is not until she took off her dark glasses that I realized she was a famous film star.
      It is not how much we do but how much we love we put into what we do that benefits our work most.
      It is not what we do once in a while that apes our lives, but what we do consistently
    (2) Only if you put the sun there didthe movements of the other planes in the skymake sense.
    Only after Mary read her composition the second time did sh。notice the. spelling mistake.
    (3)① It be+一段时间+when 当……时已是……
    be doing…when; be about to…when;be on the point of…when
    It was already ten o'clock when they came back from work last night.
    It has beett three years when we graduated,but those  memories are”sweet as ever before.
      She was just about to get into sleep when the baby  began to cry.

 (2)It+is/has been + ….since…
 It is ten weeks since he left school.
 It is two years since she lived here.

 (3)It will be…. before…要过多久才
    It won’t be….before…没过多久就

 John thinks that it won’t be long before he is ready for his new job.
   (4)It is the first/ second lime that sb. has done sth.
    It is the third time that I have been to America.
    (5)It he+natural/ right/ important. that sb. should do

sth.表示不相信、·碗惜、理应如此等。
    It be+a pity/ a shame/ no wonder that sb. should do sth.
    It is a shame that he didn’t come on time.
    (4) hardly…when;no sooner…than 某事刚刚发生,这时忽然……
    I had hardly got to the office when my wife phoned me to go back home at once.
    -Did Linda see the accident?
    -No, no sooner had she gone than it happened.
    (5) cannot…. too/ over/enough/ sufficient “越……越……,非常,无论怎样……也不过分”在此结构中,not可以换成hardly/scarcely/ never/ impossible等。
      You can not be too cautious.
    We can hardly praise his achievement too much.
    A man can never have too many friends.
    (6)①if/ when it is convenient for sb to do
    ②The reason why ... is that…其中,reason作主语,引导表语从句的连词用that,且一般不能省略。
      The reason why I didn’t go to France was that I got a new job.
    考点三高频连词
    (1)however
    She fell ill. She went to work,however, and tried to concentrate.  (adv.然而,不过;仍然)

    However I approached the problem,couldn't find a solution. (conj.无论怎样不管如何)
    (2) the moment, the minute, the second, each time, the first time等直接充当连词,引导状语从句时,其前无介词。
    I like the oil painting very much the moment I saw it.
    考点四高频介词
    (I)be fond of=be keen on=be enthusiastic about/ over=be crazy about=go in for“喜欢,渴望,爱好”
    (2)①during
    He had some amazing experiences during/in his childhood.
    There was a storm during the night; it rained for three or four hours.
    (2)including包括。此外,分词式介词/连词还有:supposing假如,according to按照,considering考虑到。
    Accoding to his report, the situation is getting worse.
    Many people including the old go to work without any pay on Saturday.
    Supposing he won’t pass the exam, what should he do?
    [3] have an effect/ influence/ impact on 对……产生影响
    Many women have an effect on their husbands.
 (3) in spite of; despite;notwithstanding尽管
    In spite of his help, I failed.
    Despite the fact that he helped me, I failed.
    比较:Even though he helped me, I failed.
 (4) with the help of
 under the guidance/ leadership of
 within/ beyond/ out of the reach of
 (5) be of benefit to…二be beneficial to“对……有裨益”
    Sunshine and moisture are benefit to plants.阳光和湿气有益于植物。
    (6) be grateful/ thankful/ obliged/ indebted to sb. for sth. / doing“因为……对……表示感激”
    I am grateful to you for your kindness.
    I was very grateful to you for informing me of my son'。safe return.
    考点五高频副词
    (I)straight
    Having enjoyed a successful high school basketball career, Kobe went straight into the NBA after graduation.
    a straight road/ line/ rod(adj.)
    (2) fortunately; unfortunately
    Fortunately a teacher impressed on me the value of  cooperation.
    (3) late; lately=recently; latest=the last up to now
    He came late to the meeting.
    Have you heard the latest news?
    Have you visited your old friend lately?
    the former.. the latter…前者……后者……
    The old chief had two sons, Tangu and
 Bala; the former is now a doctor and the latter is a lawyer.
    (4)①high, highly; deep, deeply;close, closely
    His teachers think very highly of him.
    They watched him closely in case he should escape.
    [2]most, mostly, almost
    The members of the group are mostly young.
    ③hard, hardly
    It started raining very hard at three o' clockthis morning.
    He hardly made an effort.
(5) instead
I can go to the meeting instead of my sick mother.
(6) especially,specially The president came here specially see his old friend.(为某一特殊目的,“专门”)
    It has been especially hot this summer.
(格外地,过分地;主要,“特别”)
    I don' t have time to go to my friend' s party ; besides, I don't want to meet my exgirlfriend there.
    ②besides+n/doing=In addition to+n/doing“除……之外”(Prep.)
    The lecture was too long besides being rather boring.
    考点六习惯用法
    (1)主动形式表示被动意义
    ①vi+adv/ prep
    英语中某些行为动词后加副词或介词短语(有些可不加)可以表示被动含义。
如wash, write,sell,read, open, cut,lock, strike, shut, record, clean, draw等,这类动词往往与easily, well, badly等副词连用。
These roots pull easily. Enamelwashes wares washes well.
The door won’t shut.work does not pay.
Food of this kind sells well The essay reads smoothly.
(2)be+adj+to do
    Difficult, easy, important, dangerous,hard等形容词作表语,动词不定式在其后作状语,不定式与主语是逻辑上的动宾关系。用不定式主动形式表示被动意义。
    She is easy to approach.
    The rock is hard to break.
    Generally speaking, liquid is impossible to compress.
The water in the pool is not fit to drink.
③ too…to“太……而不能……”
Atoms are too small to see.
    The oil blur on the surface is too thick to wipe off.
④sth.+to do不定式作定语,表示该做的事情。
There are many problems to solve.
  (5) need/ require/ deserve./ want+doing;he worth/ past+doing
    The children need looking after. Thecoat requires mending.
    The table wants cleaning.  This point deserves mentioning
    The book is well worth reading
    If there is a load in the center, it will be past hearing for the beam.
    如果中央有了负荷,就要超过横梁的承载能力。
    ⑥be to blame for……“因……理应受责备”
    Who is to blame for the accident?
    Joyce is to blame for the mistakes made on the last report.
    (2) Vt.+sb.+介词+the+身体部位
    pull sb. by the ear pat sb. on the head strike sb. in the eye take sb. by the arm
    比较:Jack hit Sam in the face.(强调Sam)
 Jack hit Sang' s face.(强调face)
(3) to one's great delight=to the delight of sb.“令……喜怒哀乐的是……”
    常见的情感名词还有:surprise, disappointment, regret,  annoyance,  satisfaclion, horror,distress, shame, astonishment, vexation, sorrow等。    He has recovered, much to our delight.
    To my deep regret, I can not accept your invitation.

    (4) as we all know.  as is well known as is often the case,as is natural, as is expected等结构。
(5) last/ next/ some/ any+时间名词构成的短语前不需要任何介词。
    考点七不可数名词
    (1)雷打不动的不可数名词有:news, information, evidence, proof, luggage,  baggage,  garbage,  rubbish,  work,advice, progress, weather, fun, luck, music, health, equipment, furniture等用a lot of或a piece of修饰。如:
    What lovely weather we have!
    We have collected a lot of information on his background.
    Today we have scientific proof that tobacco is harmful.
    (2) have a knowledge of“掌握……理解……”
    Only when you have acquired a good knowledge of grammar can you write correctly.
    (3)抽象名词的具体化。如success,failure, surprise, shock, interest, beauty,youth, joy, difficulty等。
      Failure is the mother of success.
    The voyage had been a great success.